Gliogenesis in the embryonic brain of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria with particular focus on the protocerebrum prior to mid-embryogenesis
Cell Tissue Res 354: 697-705. DOI 10.1007/s00441-013-1682-y
|Type of Publication:||Journal Articles 2001 - 2017|
I investigate the pattern of gliogenesis in the brain of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria prior to mid-embryogenesis, with particular focus on the protocerebrum. Using the glia-specific marker Repo and the neuron-specific marker HRP, I identify three types of glia with respect to their respective positions in the brain: surface glia form the outmost cell layer ensheathing the brain; cortex glia are intermingled with neuronal somata forming the brain cortex; and neuropil glia are associated with brain neuropils. The ontogeny of each glial type has also been studied. At 24 % of embryogenesis, a few glia are observed in each hemisphere of the proto-, deuto- and tritocerebrum. In each protocerebral hemisphere, such glia form a cluster that expands rapidly during later development. Closer examination reveals proliferative glia in such clusters at ages spanning from 24 to 36 % of embryogenesis, indicating that glial proliferation may account for the expansion of the clusters. Data derived from 33–39 % of embryogenesis suggest that, in the protocerebrum, each type of glia is likely to be generated by its respective progenitor-forming clusters. Moreover, the glial cluster located at the anterior end of the brain can give rise to both surface glia and cortex glia that populate the protocerebrum via subsequent migration. Proliferation is observed for all three glial types, indicating a possible source for the glia.